- Glucose- The most common of the 8 essential sugars that combines with Fructose in Sucrose. Glucose can be found in many processed foods and people take as much as four times over the recommended dosage. An over-consumption can cause problems like obesity and diabetes amongst others,but not enough of the monosaccharide can lead to depression, anorexia, alzheimer's and hypoglycemia. Glucose is also important in calcium absorption
- Galactose- This essential sugar is found in fruit and dairy products: like milk, cheese and yogurt. Metabolized mainly in the liver, it is a marker in the diagnosis of liver dysfunction. Galactose is also important in maintaining bacterial flora in the intestines and boosting both the immune system and helping with proper digestion. Galactose like Fucose is essential in memory formation over the long term, and has been shown in studies to inhibit tumor growth,improve the healing time of wounds, enhance cellular communication and decrease inflammation.
- Mannose- Considered to be the most important of the essential sugars, Mannose is absorbed eight times slower than Glucose. As well as being the first glyconutrient to be identified, it is involved in more cellular actions than any of the other monosaccharides.
- Fucose- Is a immunity modulator because it is distributed in macrophages: the largest white blood cells in the body. Fucose also influences brain development and a lack of Fucose is observed in people suffering with the symptoms of Amnesia. The testes, kidney’s, synapses and the outer layer of the skin have a high concentration of Fucose and contribute to the optimal functioning of these body parts.
- N-acetylgalactosamine (NaGal)- The amount of NaGal in the human body decreases with age and the use of NaGal in a supplement form may help in slowing down the aging process in humans. NaGal can be found in shark and bovine cartilage, red algae, and of course supplements. Research shows that colon patients have one half the amount of NaGal and the monosaccharide plays a role in the processes of the human immunity and inflammation. NaGal also plays a role in a high visual functioning acuity and is present in photoreceptors, eye pigmentation, optic nerves and the retina.
- N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) - Also found in shitake mushrooms and shark cartilage, NAG is a well known Osteoarthritis remedy, it is reputed to help decrease pain, inflammation and increase the range of movement for sufferers. NAG helps with functioning of the immune system and has been used as a learning aid in studies with lab mice. NAG receprors are found in the thyroid gland which scientists believe plays a role in the transportation of thyroglobulin. Concentrated amounts of N-acetylglucosamine are found in the small intestines, testes, liver, blood and the sebaceous glands.
- N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA)- This monosaccharide is particularly important for learning, brain development, cognitive performance and memory. NANA was discovered by several different scientists, but it was another who had proposed the correct structure and name for the monsaccharide. NANA is widely distributed throughout body tissues, it is also found in many fluids that are in the body like amniotic fluid, saliva and urine amongst others.
- Xylose- Is absorbed in the small intestine and has shown signs of possible cancer prevention in the digestive system. Xylose is unique in the small that it has a ring structure of five atoms, opposed to the other essential sugars that have six. Xylose is found in many different plants like guava, blackberries, raspberries, aloe vera, spinach, cabbage, corn, broccoli and green beans.